RF Measurements:Principles & Demonstration

Course 135

San Jose, CA Apr 27-May 01, 2015
Course 135-4747 Presented by Bob Froelich
Register by 4/6/2015 and pay $2295, otherwise pay $2595 Register Online
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Summary:

This 5-day lecture-based course explains essential RF measurements that must be made on modern wireless communications equipment - mobile/smart phones, wireless LANs, GPS navigation systems, and others. Current models of the essential test instruments will be explained and demonstrated, including vector network analyzers, power meters, spectrum analyzers, digitally modulated signal generators and vector signal analyzers.

All of the measurements will be demonstrated on actual RF wireless components including power amps, LNAs, mixers, upconverters, and filters. These measurements will include traditional tests of power, gain, group delay, S parameters, AM to PM, intermodulation products, harmonics and noise figure. The unique measurements of wireless communications will then be made with PSK and FSK digitally modulated signals including spectral regrowth, constellation diagram distortion, error vector magnitude (EVM), and bit error rate.

Learning Objectives:

Upon completing the course, the participant will be able to:

Target Audience:

Design and production engineers and technicians interested in improving measurement skills through a practical approach will benefit from this course. The lecture includes a review of wireless communication systems, RF components and the tests that must be made, making this an ideal course for professionals wishing to have a thorough grounding in the knowledge of how wireless systems operate.

Outline:

Day One

Course Objectives and Course Outline
• Review of RF principles • Wave parameters : frequency, amplitude, phase • basics of propagation • dB and dBm • Mismatches • Conversion between mismatch expressions : Reflection coefficient, return loss, mismatch loss, SWR • The Smith Chart - an overview • S-parameters
RF Test Equipment - Principles of Operation
• Cable and connector types/proper care • Signal generators • Power meters and power sensors • Frequency counter • Vector network analyzer • Demonstration: how to setup and calibrate a basic VNA measurement • Vector network analyzer measurements on non-packaged devices

Day Two

• Spectrum analyzer • Demonstration: how to operate a spectrum analyzer : Resolution Bandwidth, Video Bandwidth, Attenuation, Scaling • Noise figure meter • Vector signal analyzer
Measurement Uncertainties
• Mismatch uncertainty • VNA - motivation for measurement calibration
RF Communication system block diagram
• Specifications of components to be tested
Transmitter components
Phase locked oscillator
• principles of operation • measurement of phase noise : log/video vs. rms averaging on Spectrum Analyzer, Marker noise function
Upconverter
• Modulation basics • principles of operation • demonstration: measurement of conversion gain using a spectrum analyzer : output spectrum of upconverter

Day Three

Power Amplifier
• principles of operation • demonstration measurement : swept gain, power sweep/1 dB compression point, AM to PM distortion, phase on the Vector Network Analyzer • Harmonic power using Spectrum Analyzer • checking for distortion products in the test equipment
Receiver Components
Noise and Noise Figure
• Noise figure measurement • demonstration measurement using Y-factor technique
Filters
• Principles of operation • Demonstration measurement : passband, inband loss, match, group delay on the Vector Network Analyzer

Day Four

Low Noise Amplifiers
• principles of operation • Noise figure • intermodulation products • demonstration measurement : gain/1dB compression point, output power, phase using power sweep on Vector Network Analyzer • demonstration measurement : S-parameters vs. frequency on the Vector Network Analyzer
Mixer
• principles of operation : conversion gain, output power
Intermodulation Products
• description of intermodulation products • Demonstration: IP3/TOI using a spectrum analyzer • definition of IP2
Overall Receiver Performance
• Typical overall receiver performance • Calculating system performance

Day Five

Multiple Access Techniques
• FDMA • TDMA • CDMA • OFDMA
Performance of RF components with digital signals
• Block diagram • Digital modulation fundamentals • demonstration measurement : Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) performance vs. power amplifier nonlinearity with different modulation techniques • zero span function on Spectrum Analyzer
Vector Signal Analyzer Modulation Quality Measurements
• Principles of operation • EVM/Distortion of digital signal due to power amplifier nonlinearity • EVM/Distortion of digital signal due to IF filter group delay • EVM/Distortion due to LO phase noise with mixer • Troubleshooting digital modulation with a Vector Signal Analyzer
Description of Bit Error Rate (BER)
Review
• RF Communication System Operation

Subject Areas Covered

RF and Wireless Measurements
Fundamental RF Techniques
BesserCore™ RF Measurements

Check the above links for other courses that may interest you based on subject matter.

Key Concepts

PA class A,B, C etc.ACPAM-AM/AM-PM DistortionFiltersPLL/PLOBERConversion gain/lossdB and dBmDigital ModulationGainGroup DelayHarmonicsIntermodulationIntermodulationIntermodulationImpedance MatchingLNAMismatchesMixerNoise, Noise FigureNoise, Noise FigurePhaseUpconverterS-parametersS-parametersOverall Receiver PerformanceReceiver block diagramRF Communication system block diagramRF Test EquipmentTransmitter Architecture/Block Diagram

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